Indonesia relocates families to build resorts

Indonesia relocates families to build resorts
Activists say more than 100 islands have been effectively sold to investors in recent years, in bid to boost tourism.

Lombok, Indonesia – As the boat approaches Indonesia’s Gili Sunut island, the captain shuts down the engines, letting it drift the final few metres towards the shore. A strange quiet hangs in the air, punctuated by the water slopping against the hull.

Once home to 109 families, this tiny island now lies deserted. Skeletal concrete structures dot the landscape, their door frames and windows removed. Only the roof of the mosque has been left out of respect for Allah, but that too will be razed when a “six-star resort” is constructed here over the coming years.

“The government came to Sunut, to the mosque, and held a meeting with the local people to talk about the development,” says Mustiadi, a fisherman, who like many Indonesians goes by one name. “We refused the idea of relocation, but after more consultations they told us that we didn’t have any choice.”

The People’s Coalition for Fisheries Justice Indonesia (KIARA), a sea and land rights advocacy group, says the fate of Mustiadi and his community will become more common under a new government programme to promote investment in islands and coastal areas. KIARA says many more islands will effectively be sold to foreign buyers, trampling the rights of fishermen and threatening traditional livelihoods.

After their eviction in June, the former residents of Gili Sunut were relocated to a new settlement on the other side of the bay. The Singaporean developer, Ocean Blue Resorts, has provided each family with a new bungalow and between 3m and 5m rupiah ($246 to $411) in compensation. But Mustiadi says it’s not enough.

“They gave us a bungalow, but the roof leaked and it was very poor quality. I decided to rebuild mine, but not everyone could afford to do that. They still haven’t paid us for our ruined houses on Gili Sunut,” he said. “Now life is harder because we live further from our fishing waters. In our new village there is no school, and still we have no road and no running water. It feels like the government hasn’t taken care of us.”

Booming tourism

Tourism is booming on the island of Lombok. In September, the land division of Indonesian media conglomerate MNC reportedly set aside 700bn ($57.4m) rupiah to invest in an “integrated tourist resort” in Kuta on the island’s south coast. The completion of a sealed coast road and the opening of an international airport in 2011 are rapidly boosting the number of visitors.

The locals take what they’re given and they don’t know how to fight the government. Often the police and the army are used to push people out.

– Selamet Daroyni, KIARA coordinator for education

Development promises to bring new wealth to the region, but for many villagers the pace of change has been disruptive. “The biggest loss for the community is their tradition, which has been passed from generation to generation,” said Selamet Daroyni, KIARA’s coordinator for education. “Fishermen don’t know their rights, and in some cases the private sector have been able to get away with paying only 1m rupiah in compensation for their land. The locals take what they’re given and they don’t know how to fight the government. Often the police and the army are used to push people out.”

According to KIARA, more than 100 islands across the archipelago have been “sold” to investors in recent years, including the Alor Islands in East Nusa Tenggara, the Mentehage Islands in North Sulawesi and Maratua Islands and Sebatik Islands, both in East Kalimantan.

Despite the potential long-term benefits to employment and infrastructure, Selamet says developments like the proposed resort on Gili Sunut go against Indonesia’s constitution. “The basic laws laid out in 1945 [when Indonesia declared itself an independent nation] said that everything of the land, air and water is supposed to be managed by and used by the Indonesian people. And so if it is being used by theprivate sector and overseas investors it is clearly a breach of the law. Why isn’t the government paying attention to this?”

‘Adopting’ an island

The sale of islands is prohibited under Indonesian law, but KIARA claims the government will circumvent this issue through its “Island Adoption Programme” announced in November. There is currently no legal mechanism by which private investors may buy an island, but it is possible to “manage” islands for up to 50 years on a renewable basis. “How can an island be adopted? It’s not a baby,” Selamet said.

They lived [on Gili Sunut] for many years, but their lives have not improved … Tourism, we believe, will be developed in the future and will get them a better life.”

– Gufrin Udini, East Lombok regional government official

For the former residents of Gili Sunut, the legal nuances of terms like “buy”, “sell”, “manage” or “adopt” are irrelevant. For many of them, the claim that their land has not been sold is a lie. “I don’t tell lies,” said Gufrin Udin, an official from the East Lombok regional government. “We don’t sell islands … [Gili Sunut] belongs to the government. The company or the investor applies to do some investments on the island. And then we put it into an agreement, a memorandum of understanding, signed by the government and the investor or company.”

Gufrin did not disclose how much the transaction was worth, and said no money had yet changed hands. But he confirmed that under the memorandum of understanding, Ocean Blue Resorts would control the island for 30 to 50 years, with the option to renew at the end of the period. On a blog run by Ocean Blue Resorts, the company claimed to have $120m ready to invest in the island, with the partnership of two five-star hotel operators.

He played down the villagers’ anger, claiming that he had only received one complaint from them and that they were frustrated because they had not yet seen the benefits of development.

Gufrin defended Ocean Blue Resorts, listing the new homes and facilities that the company has provided for the villagers. “They lived [on Gili Sunut] for many years, but their lives have not improved,” he said. “One way to improve their lives is to find them jobs – not just as fishermen but in other sectors – and tourism, we believe, will be developed in the future and will get them a better life.”

The Ministry for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries failed to respond to repeated requests for an interview by the date of publication. Ocean Blue Resorts also declined to comment.


Lampung shrimp farmers work independently

Lampung shrimp farmers work independently

The Jakarta Post, Bandar Lampung | Tue, 02/11/2014 5:35 AM | Archipelago

Three years after severing ties with PT Central Prima Protein (CPP), hundreds of shrimp farmers in Bumi Dipasena, Tulang Bawang regency, Lampung, have begun to cultivate shrimp independently.
Many circles have doubted the ability of the farmers to manage the shrimp farm in the northern coast of Lampung.
The farmers in Bumi Dipasena showed their ability as independent
farmers by purchasing an excavator worth Rp 2 billion (US$164,300) using their own funds.

“We bought the excavator with cash set aside by members of the Tiger Prawn Plasma Farmers Association [P3UW]. The excavator will later be used to restore the Bumi Dipasena hatchery,” said P3UW head Nafian Faiz.

The shrimp farmers have also improved the infrastructure in Bumi Dipasena without assistance from PT CPP.

“There are lots of changes in Bumi Dipasena, be they the roads repaired by the Tulang Bawang regency administration or concrete bridges built independently by friends. Thanks to the excavator, we will be able to upgrade hatchery, which has so far been neglected,” said Nafian.

He added the shrimp farmers had hoped that PT CPP would revamp the shrimp farm, but it never happened. Instead, a long-running dispute between the farmers and the company took place in which several people were killed.


RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan Dipastikan Tak Rampung Tahun Ini

RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan Dipastikan Tak Rampung Tahun Ini

JAKARTA, GRESNEWS.COM- Rancangan Undang-Undang tentang Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan dipastikan tak bisa diselesaikan pada akhir tahun ini. Sebab RUU yang telah masuk Program Legislasi Nasional itu hingga saat ini belum juga dibahas di Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat.

Anggota Komisi IV DPR RI dari Fraksi Amanat Nasional Viva Yoga Mauladi mengatakan pembahasan RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan masih dalam taraf penyusunan naskah akademik. “Saat ini masih kita bahas penyusunan naskah akademiknya. Karena kan kemarin kami masih fokus pada penyelesaian UU Pemberdayaan Pulau-Pulau Kecil dan Wilayah Pesisir,” kata Yoga kepada melalui telepon, kemarin.

Ketua Badan Pemenangan Pemilu PAN itu menambahkan alasan masih dibahasnya RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan itu juga dikarenakan Komisi saat ini masih fokus untuk menyelesaikan RUU Konservasi Tanah dan Air dan RUU Perkebunan. Lebih lanjut Yoga mengungkapkan mengenai RUU perlindungan dan pemberdayaan nelayan sebenarnya akan dimasukkan dalam pembahasan UU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Petani, dimana di dalamnya mencakup petani laut, yang berarti termasuk nelayan. Namun saat pembahasan RUU itu, anggota dewan sepakat bahwa petani yang dimaksud adalah petani darat. Sehingga pihaknya skeptis RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan dapat diselesaikan sebelum masa jabatan anggota dewan saat ini berakhir.

Sementara itu, Sekretaris Jenderal Koalisi Rakyat Untuk Keadilan Perikanan (KIARA) Abdul Halim mengatakan DPR RI justru harus segera menyelesaikan RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan karena sangat penting bagi upaya peningkatan kesejahteraan nelayan secara hukum. Menurutnya, bila Indonesia sudah meratifikasi Pedoman Internasional tentang Pengamanan Perikanan Skala Kecil Berkelanjutan (International Guidelines on Securing Sustainable Smallscale Fisheries) maka RUU itu harus segera disahkan.

Saat ini kan sedang dibahas mengenai Pedoman Internasional tentang Pengamanan Perikanan Skala Kecil Berkelanjutan (International Guidelines on Securing Sustainable Smallscale Fisheries) di Roma Italia, maka Indonesia wajib mempunyai UU tentang perlindungan dan pemberdayaan nelayan,” kata Abdul kepada kemarin.

Abdul menambahkan RUU Perlindungan dan Pemberdayaan Nelayan yang tengah di bahas di Komisi IV saat ini merupakan inisiatif DPR. Sementara pada tahun 2010 lalu, Kementerian Hukum dan HAM sudah pernah menyusun naskah akademik untuk RUU ini. Namun tiba-tiba RUU ini masuk dalam Prolegnas tahun 2010, atas inisiatif DPR. Komisi IV sendiri saat dihubungi oleh menyatakan tidak ingat kapan RUU ini mulai diajukan oleh DPR.

Saat ini konsultasi teknis mengenai Pengamanan Perikanan Skala Kecil Berkelanjutan tengah berlangsung dari tanggal 3-7 Februari 2014 di Roma, Italia. Perwakilan Delegasi Republik Indonesia diwakili oleh Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan (KKP).

Pedoman Internasional tersebut merupakan bagian penting pengaturan perikanan yang menjadi bagian dari Tata Laksana Perikanan yang Bertanggung Jawab FAO 1995 (FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 1995). Tata Laksana Perikanan yang Bertanggung Jawab menegaskan pentingnya kontribusi perikanan artisanal dan perikanan skala kecil terhadap kesempatan kerja, pendapatan dan ketahanan pangan. Juga menegaskan adanya perlindungan terhadap hak para nelayan dan pekerja perikanan, terutama bagi mereka yang terlibat dalam perikanan subsistem, skala kecil dan artisanal, atas suatu mata pencaharian yang aman dan pantas dan jika perlu, hak atas akses istimewa ke daerah penangkapan dan sumberdaya tradisional di dalam perairan di bawah yuridiksi mereka.

Walaupun menjadi hukum yang tidak mengikat, Tata Laksana Perikanan yang Bertanggung Jawab merupakan soft law atau hukum yang lunak dan tidak memaksa bagi negara anggota untuk meratifikasi. Namun Tata Laksana Perikanan yang Bertanggung Jawab bagi setiap negara anggota FAO, termasuk Indonesia, wajib untuk diikuti, ditaati dan dilaksanakan.

Konsultasi Teknis FAO yang telah berlangsung di Roma merupakan lanjutan dari konsultasi publik yang sebelumnya dilakukan pada 20-24 Mei 2013. Pedoman Internasional yang saat ini dibahas merupakan kelanjutan dari konsultasi publik bersama dengan nelayan tradisional, organisasi masyarakat sipil dan mitra kerja yang telah dilakukan KIARA bekerjasama dengan Aliansi untuk Desa Sejahtera dan The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF). Konsultasi publik tersebut dilakukan di 4 (empat) tempat berbeda yaitu Mataram (Nusa Tenggara Barat), Surabaya (Jawa Timur), Banda Aceh (Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam), dan Balikpapan (Kalimantan Timur).

Dari konsultasi publik yang dilakukan di Indonesia menghasilkan dua poin rumusan perlindungan nelayan tradisional, yakni pertama, pemenuhan perlindungan dan pemenuhan hak-hak warga negara sebagaimana hak asasi manusia dalam hak sipil, hak politik, hak ekonomi, hak sosial, dan hak untuk berbudaya. Kedua, pedoman perlindungan nelayan tradisional harus mencakup hak-hak nelayan tradisional yang telah dirumuskan dan harus dilindungi melalui instrumen perlindungan nelayan.

Prospek perlindungan nelayan tradisional di Indonesia mendapatkan momentum penting dengan diputusnya uji materi terhadap UU No. 27 Tahun 2007 tentang Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil. Putusan MK No. 3/PUU-VIII/2010 dalam pertimbangannya menjabarkan 4 hak konstitusional nelayan Indonesia, yakni hak untuk melintas di laut; hak untuk dapat mengelola sumber daya melalui kearifan lokal; hak memanfaatkan atau mengelola sumber daya alam untuk kepentingan nelayan; dan hak untuk mendapatkan lingkungan hidup dan perairan yang bersih dan sehat.

Walaupun kemudian, revisi melalui UU No. 1 Tahun 2014 tentang Perubahan Atas UU No. 27 Tahun UU No. 27 Tahun 2007 tentang Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil berpotensi kembali melanggar hak nelayan atas ruang penghidupannya dengan adanya ijin lokasi dan ijin pengelolaan yang tetap wajib bagi nelayan tradisional dan skala kecil.

Peluang kebijakan perlindungan melalui RUU Perlindungan Nelayan semakin mengecil untuk segera disahkan menjadi Undang-Undang. Walaupun telah menjadi Prioritas Program Legislasi Nasional 2010-2014, namun di tengah tahun politik yang semakin hingar-bingar RUU Perlindungan Nelayan tidak dapat dipastikan akan disahkan. Padahal 95,6% dari 2,7 jiwa nelayan adalah nelayan tradisional dan skala kecil yang beroperasi di sekitar pesisir pantai atau beberapa mil saja dari lepas pantai.

Pembahasan Pedoman Internasional tentang Pengamanan Perikanan Skala Kecil Berkelanjutan menjadi peluang kekosongan perlindungan negara terhadap nelayan tradisional dan skala kecil. Namun peluang tersebut masih berpeluang untuk berbelok kembali dengan ancaman potensi dalam klausul penting yang sedang dibahas dalam Pedoman Internasional. Terdapat empat klausul penting yang berpotensi berbelok arah dalam perlindungan nelayan tradisional dan skala kecil yaitu: Pertama, terkait dengan definisi dan kriteria nelayan skala kecil; kedua, terkait dengan adopsi pengaturan pasal-pasal terkait dengan WTO; ketiga, masih terkait dengan WTO, usulan dari Uni Eropa untuk memfasilitasi nelayan skala kecil ke pasar dunia; dan keempat, terkait dengan redistribusi sumber daya tanah pesisir bagi keluarga nelayan


Reporter : Mungky Sahid

Redaktur : Ramidi